Poppy - to be seen if taproot tip re-sprouts
Welsh Poppy (Meconopsis cambrica) seen in just about every Vancouver alley and most gardens is wrongly called 'California' poppy. These have very different flat, lobed leaves and never have deeper orange center petals. Petals vary between plants from light yellow to light orange - mostly yellow. Gardeners say that unless you dig out the complete and VERY long tap root, they will regrow. Certainly my 2021 digging left a lot of those root tips behind. If there is regrowth in 2022 I will dig again and leave salt behind. Given how very invasive these are, I believe an ongoing yearly deadheading to prevent spread would be well worth the effort.
Burdock - all cleared
I have noticed only two Burdock plants along the very edge of the sunny stretch of trail on the north of 'my area'. Its leaves remind you of rhubarb's with a thick stem and spreading flat over the ground. The spike with flowers that become burrs only grows in summer.
Both plants had a tap root that was thinner at the top. In both cases there was a node where the root changed direction, going sideways away from the trail. In both cases I an not positive I got the whole root. If there is regrowth I will try the salt method that works for knotweed.
Foxglove - all cleared
Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is easy to spot, to identify, and just as easy to pull up by the roots with one swipe of a hand cultivator. They have been appearing on the sunny trails that ring around the wild west of the park, obviously migrating in from the road side. There should be no problem at all removing them as they appear in the middle of June.
Although I say it is all cleared, that was what I thought in the summer of 2020. In 2021 I found at least one plant on every trail and even a few further back into the woods. But again I am thinking that I have cleared them all.
Yellow Lamium - all cleared
Lamium (or Yellow Archangel, Lamium galeobdolon) is used by gardeners as ground cover because it spreads so well - exactly the characteristic that makes it so dangerous in the wild. Lamium is very hard to remove and requires repeat visits for years to complete. It should be given a top priority for clearing.
It grows from a small ball below the surface that is firmly anchored by many tiny roots. It is best to partially loosen the soil with a cultivator before working your fingers down below each plant's root-ball before pulling. Take away as much soil as comes up. Plants spread with very fine horizontal stems above-ground that root many feet away. Lift the pulled plant carefully in order to feel the tug of any runner. Most times it will break without your noticing. When the leaves are damp they are very difficult to tell apart from buttercups because the light reflecting from the buttercup's indents gives the same impression as the lamium's variegation. It is easiest to distinguish in mid March when it grows higher faster than the buttercups. The April flowers are a dead give away.
Do NOT throw pullings onto any compost pile. They do not die. They colonize the whole pile - migrating to the new top when you turn the pile. It is best if they go into the garbage. The only alternative is to 'rot' them in place covered in plastic - a process with its own problems.
The cultivated gardens adjacent to the wild west of Stanley Park are rapidly being taken over by this plant. Starting at the park boundary , the plant beds covered in Lamium are getting closer and closer with every year. And each plant bed quickly progresses from a few weeds to being completely over-run. Yet the gardeners do absolutely nothing. NOTHING. It should be the gardeners' priority.
Lesser Periwinkle - all cleared within my territory
Periwinkle (Vinca minor), another gardeners' ground cover, is much easier to deal with. If there are no other plant species mixed in, then the periwinkle can be easily pulled up by clumps. Doing this in the summer dry period allows any remaining plants to die from desiccation in the disturbed soil. If there are other plants among the Periwinkle then it is better to wait for the winter die-back. Pulling in wet weather will mean that some plants remain viable, but they can be easily found with a few repeat visits. Pullings will compost if simply left in a pile and turned a few times.
The only patch, now cleared, is shown in the map above. A patch outside my area, down the switchbacks from Prospect Point, has been brought to the attention of SPES. So far they have decided to not clear it.
English Laurel - all necessary plants cleared
English Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) is a foreign plant but not invasive - at least not in Stanley Park. I have spotted nine individual plants in the wild west of the park. Four were full grown at about six or seven feet tall in different areas. One has a trunk thick enough to be a tree. Yet only one of the small plants was close enough to possibly be an offspring. The others were widely dispersed. The remaining very large 'tree' does not flower, so I feel it is safe to leave.
In the wild these plants are not the bushy hedges you see in town. They have a limited number of long stems. The alternating leaves twist to all face flat upward. The leave are thick and glossy. You can tell the difference from Salal by Salal leaves' slightly wavy edge. Lots of websites warn about the leaves, stem and roots of Laurel plants causing rashes when touched. I don't know how serious that all is, considering the widespread use of the plant as garden hedges. I have pulled up the small plants by hand, and had leaves brush my face, without any effects.
For small to medium size plants, the roots radiate just under the soil so no gloves or tools are necessary. Just grasp the stem and pull. It takes about a minute. For larger plants there will be one thick root often running sideways. It is easy to cut through with the keyhole saw used when clearing Blackberries.
St. John's Wort - all cleared
Gardeners love the St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) long-blooming showy flowers. They deadhead the blooms in fall dumping them in the back of their trucks. It is clear from the plant's pattern of occurence in the woods, that its source was seed heads falling off the trucks. None of the isolated plants showed any indication of spreading much less being 'invasive'. Only one plant in full sun grew with vigor. All were right beside the trail.
Single plants need no tools to clear. Simple grab the stem and pull. The one bigger clump required a cultivator and/or keyhole saw to loosen the roots.
Hedge Bindweed aka Morning Glory - all cleared within my territory
There are two types of Bindweed - both in the Morning Glory family. I believe it is Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium, that is in Stanley Park. The arrowhead leaves look similar to the Field Bindweed, except not so pointy at the trailing edge. Like all Morning Glory this plant twines around anything vertical. It prefers sun so I am hoping it will not thrive in the shade of my territory. The extensive root system makes clearing difficult. Any pieces left behind can and will start new plants. You can scratch backwards along the root when it is growing in loose soil. But when growing among other plants, their roots prevent access to the bindweed's roots.
I have found only two small spots within my territory - on the north edge of Hollow Tree park and north of the hydrant on Bridle Path. Because the plant is so small it is just chance that I found these sites. I have cleared both but return regularly to find one or two new shoots. Along the north access road to 3rd Beach bindweed has moved up from the seawall. This is the start of trails into the woods, so I feel it quite important that this spot NOT be allowed to spread contamination into the wild areas. As it stands now, it would be impossible to clear a defensible area, but I have cleared enough at the corner that a yearly revisit in mid-late April should keep it under control.
There are tons of Holly plants growing through the wild west of the park. But they never seem healthy or vigorous. They never form trees. So I conclude they are not invasive - they don't out-compete other native plants. When prioritizing work, their removal should rank far lower than the priority to extend the areas cleared of Ivy and Blackberries.